Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024): Journal of Strategic Studies, Summer 2024

Hybrid Warfare: Impact of Indian Film Industry on National Security of Pakistan

Areej Pervaiz
Areej Pervaiz has completed an MPhil in Strategic Studies from the National Defense University (NDU), Islamabad
Published June 28, 2024
  • Indian Film Industry,
  • Hybrid Warfare,
  • Propaganda,
  • Negative Stereotypes,
  • Narrative Building,
  • Public Opinion,
  • Media Influence
  • ...More
How to Cite
Areej Pervaiz. (2024). Hybrid Warfare: Impact of Indian Film Industry on National Security of Pakistan. CISS Insight Journal, 12(1). Retrieved from https://journal.ciss.org.pk/index.php/ciss-insight/article/view/362


During Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi’s tenure (2014 to the present), Indian films have often exalted the Indian armed forces and portrayed Pakistan as the major adversary, associating the latter with terrorism and espionage. This depiction is considered a form of hybrid warfare, which not only reinforces negative stereotypes but also fosters a persistent sense of threat, influencing public opinion and negative attitudes of the Indian masses towards Pakistan. The extensive outreach and impact of the Indian film industry can potentially affect domestic perceptions, thereby damaging Pakistan’s image inside India. In addition, the impact is manifesting itself globally. The narratives created through the film industry have a far-reaching psychological impact, potentially contributing to radicalization and perpetuating border tensions, eroding cultural values, and aggravating mistrust between the two states and societies. This research examines the effects of Indian films on Pakistan's national security, highlighting how these mediums have been used for narrative building, portraying Pakistan as a primary adversary associated with terrorism, which in turn aggravates mistrust between the two states and minimizes space for peace and reconciliation.