The Security Imperative: Pakistan’s Nuclear Deterrence and Diplomacy, Zamir Akram
This book, authored by Ambassador (retired) Zamir Akram, provides invaluable and unique insights into Pakistan’s nuclear journey and strategic diplomacy that played a crucial role in achieving its nuclear deterrence capability. The central argument is that Pakistan’s decision to acquire nuclear deterrence was not motivated by a thirst for prestige or great power status. Instead, it responded to the complex security challenges originating from the Indian ambitious and hegemonic force postures.
The introductory chapter discusses how Pakistan’s security needs were intricately linked to its historical and geographical factors, where a history of disputes and strained relations with India played a pivotal role in defining its security framework. Initially, Pakistan relied on an external balancing strategy, which included forming military alliances with friendly countries, to safeguard its security. Nevertheless, this approach proved futile in deterring India’s aggression in 1971. Moreover, Pakistan’s security challenges were exacerbated by its geographical location in an unstable neighborhood, with persistent threats emerging from Afghanistan. Subsequently, in the wake of India’s 1974 nuclear test, Pakistan opted to pursue nuclear weapons capability as a security measure.