Peoples Republic of China
The analysis of different phases of Chinese leadership indicates the key factors that have shaped the Chinese National Security Policy over the years. According to John Garnett, states learn by experience and from history. Thus, it can be said that the Chinese national security policy making does have an influence of the historical events like ‘century of humiliation’ at the hands of West and the opium war. Similarly a state’s geographical location, territory and population strength also bears an influence on the policy making. This again is true in case of PRC as it holds a significant position in terms of its geographical location, size of territory and population strength and thus its significance in contemporary international politics cannot be denied. The policy makers are also constrained by the treaty obligations, the commitments they inherit from their predecessors, by alliances and by domestic environment that may include availability of the resources, the economic stability etc. Again, it can be established that all these factors have influenced the National Security Policy of PRC at different points in time (as it will be discussed later in the paper). Lastly, the ideology or a value system may also act as a constraint. For instance the influence of Mao’s doctrines or the Confucius ideology is particularly relevant in case of China.